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COVID-19 Response

The PAIR Center Responds to COVID-19

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PAIR Center faculty mobilized early in the pandemic, not only to provide much needed care on the front lines, but also to lend their expertise in emergency preparedness, acute care delivery, patient and family-centered cared, data science, and ethics.


Our faculty developed and implemented policies and initiatives to support clinicians, health systems, and families facing extraordinary challenges. 


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Media Library


PAIR faculty have been consistent and credible sources providing quality information and education to the public. You can find a library of news articles here.

Crisis Standards of Care & Resource Allocation


> Guidance for Decisions Regarding Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

This guidance on offering cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during the COVID19 pandemic was prepared by our Director, Scott Halpern MD, PhD, and colleagues at Penn as well as Dr. Doug White at the University of Pittsburgh, in an effort to promote a nationally standardized approach to these difficult decisions.

It has been adopted by 300 hospitals across 7 states during the pandemic.


Follow this link to download guidelines


> Prioritizing Equity in a Time of Scarcity: The COVID-19 Pandemic

Nwamaka D. Eneanya with Utibe R. Essien and Deidra C. Crew in the in the Journal of General Internal Medicine on placing equity at the center of rationing strategies to protect vulnerable communities during the pandemic. Illustrating the negative impact of ignoring  these concerns within the organ transplant and advance care planning processes, Eneanya, Essien and Crew provide recommendations for to address these concerns including: (a) Creating state and federal Pandemic Health Equity Accountability Panels (b) Diversifying crisis triage committees (c) More community partnerships to raise awareness about advance care planning (d) Early palliative care referrals.


> A Conceptual and Adaptable Approach to Hospital Preparedness for Acute Surge Events Due to Emerging Infectious Diseases


George Anesi, Laura Evans and Ylinne Lynch in Critical Care Explorations on capacity strain as a spectrum, the impact of acute surge events and how hospitals can respond.



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CHIME, A tool for COVID-19 Capacity Planning


Gary Weissman, Gerorge Anesi, Scott Halpern & Andrew Crane-Droesch with the Penn Data Science team developed the  COVID-19 Hospital Impact Model for Epidemics (CHIME), a forecasting app to assist in planning for patient surge. CHIME allows hospitals to enter information about their population and modify assumptions around the spread and behavior of COVID-19. These projections can then be used to create best- and worst-case scenarios to assist with capacity planning. The team also published their findings in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Patient & Family Centered Care


Faculty Kate Courtright & Joanna Hart along with colleagues at Johns Hopkins University developed a toolkit of strategies for supporting family-centered inpatient care during physical distancing responsive to the current clinical climate.  Follow the links below to download materials:

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Thought Leadership


> Cognitive Bias and Public Health Policy During the COVID-19 Pandemic

In JAMA Network, Scott Halpern, Robert D. Truog and Franklin G. Miller examine how cognitive bias impacted the US response to COVID-19 and what we can learn to promote better preparedness for the next wave or pandemic.


> Rural Health in America During COVID-19

Joanna Hart moderated a conversation with top rural health experts on the impact COVID-19 is having on rural experts as part of LDI's Rural Health and Policy Research Working Group.


> The Urge to Build More Intensive Care Unit Beds and Ventilators: Intuitive but Errant

Scott Halpern and Franklin G. Miller write in The Annals of Internal Medicine, that the rush to build more ICU beds & ventilators at the beginning of COVID-19 was understandable, but misguided, because it wouldn’t save many lives, and would worsen population health.

Instead they suggest diverting those investments to the following would have done more to improve population health: (a) SARS-CoV-2 testing (b) Contact tracing program (c) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (d) Promoting adherence to physical distancing (e) Expanding  the Palliative Care workforce.


> Cognitive Bias in Public Health Policy

Scott Halpern presented on inconsistent public responses to COVID-19 and how understanding these biases could improve public health in the future as part of the CanCOVID Speaker Series.


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